The principles of operation
Principle of operation of a heat pump
A safe, clean and efficient heating system that uses the heat of the environment instead of burning a fossil energy (oil, gas, coal).
It is ideally suited to replace traditional boiler and of course for any new construction.
This is the principle of the fridge upside down. She picks up a few degrees to the heat of the environment to then raise the temperature to the desired value. To do this, she needs an energy of training which is usually electricity. It delivers 100% of useful thermal energy from 25% to 30% of engine power.
Heat from air, soil or water is routed to the evaporator which forwards it to the fluid coolant (at low boiling point) of the heat pump. This fluid changes state and is transformed into steam. The compressor compresses the vapor, thus increasing its temperature. It is at the level of the condenser that superheated steam transmits its heat to the circuit water of the heating system. Fluid heat transfer, always compressed, becomes liquid. The relief valve reduces the pressure of the coolant. The temperature of the latter lowers strongly making it ready for a new absorption of heat from the environment and the cycle can start again.
Heat pump heating
Air heat source:
The air is available everywhere and at will. In addition it can be used without problem as a source of energy. It is free. The installation of an air-to-water heat pump requires no permission. This type of heat pumps is used in plain and up to 600-800 meters as monovalent heating system. Cela means that it provides all of the heating requirements. Above, should be a complement to electric heater, or wood, or a fossil. In this case that the heating system is said bivalent. Air-to-water heat pumps do not hold in France only 12% of the market share.
Ground heat source:
There are simple techniques to exploit the natural energy stored in the soil. It uses either one or more vertical geothermal probes installed at a depth of 50 to 150 metres, or a horizontal sensor buried deeper frost which lies between 1 and 1.5 metres, depending on altitude, in a field well exposed to the Sun.
Water heat source:
Groundwater temperature is high and constant throughout the year (between 8 ° C and 12 ° C). This source is therefore ideal for heating by heat pump. It is also possible to capture the heat of surface waters, such as lakes, rivers, streams and wastewater.
Ambient heat used by heat pumps is located in:
air, soil and water (groundwater and surface water).
Air can be used anywhere without special permission. Pumps that use this heat source typically operate down to minus 20 ° C.
Heat from the ground and the use of water from surface or groundwater are subject to authorisation. There is no other limit to the use of the pumps that use these heat sources.
Principle of operating an air conditioner
An air conditioner works on the same principle as your refrigerator. On the one hand it produces cold and the other (on the back of your fridge) it evacuates the hot, calories.
Small noise you hear in your fridge is electric compressor that compresses a fluid said refrigerant which has the capacity by its state changes (gaseous liquid) to transfer energy cold and heat.
Your air conditioner is comparable to your refrigerator if we consider that the room to be air conditioned is the inside of the fridge and warm at the back of the fridge is in the case of your air conditioner, evacuated outside your room.
Therefore, there will be, as your fridge still cold useful energy to get in the room to be air conditioned, and warm energy to evacuate outdoors.
This is why some air conditioners as mobile require released a range of hot air to the outside entrebâillant a window or by making a hole on the front. Or like the SPLIT-SYSTEM who have a subwoofer, often wall, inside and an outer casing, called condenser, used to evacuate the calories out.
The so-called conditioning works with a reverse cooling cycle. That is, the evacuation of calories is done inside the room, while the cold is produced outside, outdoors. With a very economical efficiency, this system joint air conditioning was and winter heating allows a continued use of the air conditioner in summer as in winter.
Sample schema for a ducted air conditioner and heating
Principle of operation of solar heating
It is not necessary to have the Sun at all times (it comes from direct radiation): a solar water heater works with the light of day even if the sky is covered, it is diffuse or indirect radiation.
In summer, a solar installation (correctly scaled!) enough to heat all of the water needed.
In winter, the solar water heater preheats water while the extra (the boiler or electrical resistance) takes over to ensure the water to the desired temperature.
Diffuse or indirect radiation is the global solar radiation with the exception of direct radiation. It includes most of the scattered radiation by the atmosphere as well as a portion of the radiation reflected by the ground, depending on the inclination of the receiving surface.
Solar panels in the South of the France allow you to cover approximately 80% of your needs in hot water even in winter! Enjoy, also, this free energy!
Depending on your hot water consumption and your exposure, you need 1 m² of panels per pair of person.
The volume and type of boiler vary the total surface panels and system of heating for the wrong season.
A solar water heater consists of several bodies:
solar panels (or solar thermal collectors) which capture the energy of the solar radiation by heating a heat transfer fluid (water or antifreeze) in a primary circuit. The latter is responsible for delivering calories recovered to the secondary circuit;
a hot water tank (or hot water) in which water is heated by the heat transfer fluid through a heat exchanger, often a coil of copper;
a supplementary heating device can be integrated to the tank, in the form of an electric resistance or binding to a boiler gas, oil or wood. It is useful when solar energy is not sufficient to the needs. The extra can be avoided with a greater facility to compensate for dips or adapting  the way in which hot water is used.
a vase of expansion on the primary circuit, ensures the security of the equipment, it allows to compensate the dilation of the fluid. It takes the form of a small metal tank; a safety valve is imperative in a closed circuit, where it would be built into it. An expansion tank in the open air (simple drum plastic) placed in high point solves the problems of expansion and safety in case of overheating (no coolant drain).
It Assistant a pump in the primary circuit, a pump driven by an electric motor, when it forced circulation equipment.
Otherwise if the tank is placed higher than the solar panel, it is not necessary to use a pump. The movement of water in the primary circuit is done by thermosiphon if Panel output temperature is quite high (relative input) to overcome losses in the system. The advantage is that traffic stops during the night, thus keeping the energy stored in the ball during the day.
Sample schema for a thermodynamic balloon